In this section you will find further national and international publications on the subject of vocational education and training which were not produced within the framework of the ReferNet project partnership:



  • Building a European qualifications map - Development of national qualifications frameworks (NQFs) across Europe (Cedefop, 2024): EN
  • Next generation skills intelligence for more learning and better matching - Skills anticipation trends, opportunities and challenges in EU Member States (Cedefop, 2024): EN



  • Stemming the tide: tackling early leaving from vocational education and training in times of crises: synthesis report of Cedefop/ReferNet survey. (Cedefop/ReferNet, 2023): EN
  • Going digital means skilling for digital - Using big data to track emerging digital skill needs (Cedefop, 2023): EN
  • Entrepreneurship competence in vocational education and training in Europe and eight national case studies (Cedefop, 2023): EN
  • Skills in transition: the way to 2035 (Cedefop, 2023): EN
  • Handling change with care: skills for the EU care sector (Cedefop, 2023): EN
  • National policies for quality in initial VET mobility: little progress made: a new impulse needed (Cedefop, 2023): EN
  • Global inventory of national and regional qualifications frameworks 2022 (Cedefop, 2023):
  • Entrepreneurship competence in vocational education and training. Case study: Austria, Cedefop research paper, No 95 (Cedefop, 2023): EN
  • The future of vocational education and training in Europe: synthesis report (Cedefop, 2023): EN
  • From linear thinking to green growth mindsets - Vocational education and training and skills as springboards for the circular economy (Cedefop, 2023): EN
  • Investing in career guidance - The case for workers (Cedefop, 2023): EN





  • The green employment and skills transformation: insights from a European Green Deal skills forecast scenario (Cedefop, 2021): EN
  • Enablers and disablers of cross-border long-term apprentice mobility: evidence from country- and project-level investigations (Cedefop, 2021): EN
  • Review and renewal of qualifications. Towards methodologies for analysing and comparing learning outcomes (Cedefop, 2021): EN
  • More perceptions: opinion survey on adult learning and continuing vocational education and training in Europe. Volume 2: views of adults in Europe (Cedefop, 2021): EN
  • Apprenticeship governance and in-company training: where labour market and education meet. Cedefop community of apprenticeship experts: short papers (Cedefop, 2021): EN
  • Investing in career guidance - Revised edition 2021 (Europen Commission et al., 2021): EN
  • Skills development in the platforme economy (Cedefop, 2021): EN
  • Cross-border long-term apprenticeship mobility (Cedefop, 2021): EN
  • Spotlight on VET - 2020 compilation: Vocational education and training systems in Europe (Cedefop. 2021): EN
  • Understanding technological change and skill needs: Cedefop practical guides. Volume 1 - 3 (Cedefop, 2021): EN
  • Degital, greener and more resilient. Insight from Cedefop's European skills forecast (Cedefop, 2021): EN
  • How many apprentices are there in the EU? Estimates based on Cedefop database on apprenticeship and reflections on available EU data sources (Cedefop, 2021): EN
  • The role of work-based learning in VET in tertiary education. Evidence from the 2016 EU labour force survey (Cedefop, 2021): EN
  • The next steps for apprenticeship (Cedefop/OECD, 2021): EN
  • Overview of national qualification framework development in Europe 2020 (Cedefop, 2021): EN



  • Career Guidance policy and practice in the pandemic. Results of a joint international survey (Cedefop et al., 2020): EN
  • Financing apprenticeships in the EU (Cedefop, 2020): EN
  • Perceptions on adult learning and continuing vocational education and training in Europe - Second opinion survey
  • Research paper: Key competences in initial vocational education and training: digital, multilingual and literacy (Cedefop, 2020): EN
  • Developing and matching skills in the online platform economy - Findings on new forms of digital work and learning from Cedefop’s CrowdLearn study (Cedefop, 2020): EN
  • Empowering adults through upskilling and reskilling pathways (Cedefop, 2020):
  • 2018 European inventory on validation of non-formal and informal learning: final synthesis report, Executive summary (Cedefop, 2020): EN
  • The importance of being vocational: challenges and opportunities for VET in the next decade (Cedefop and ETF, 2020): EN
  • European qualifications framework - Initial vocational education and training: focus on qualifications at levels 3 and 4 (Cedefop, 2020): EN
  • Vocational education and training in Europe, 1995-2035 - Scenarios for European vocational education and training in the 21st century (Cedefop, 2020): EN
  • On the way to 2020: data for vocational education and training policies (Cedefop 2020): EN







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